Chandra

A 400 by 900 Light-Year Mosaic the Constellation Sagittarius

1(Galactic Center – Milky Way Galaxy)

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         Welcome back My Dear Shoevians to The Other Shoe and another Chandra edition of ‘Lost in Space’. I was so taken with the images I found, and shared, from the Chandra X-Ray Telescope that I have decided to revisit this platform and share even more of the incredible and memorable images that NASA has captured. Now, My Dear Shoevians, realize that the images that I am sharing, in this edition as well as the first (and any more to come) that I say come from Chandra? Well, they are composite images. They are composites made from images from; Chandra2, the Hubble3 telescope and Spitzer4 telescope. That means that each and every image, you see here today, was accomplished by (at least) three teams of scientists and visual specialists working in conjunction to produce images containing an; x-ray images, an optical image and infrared image.

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We begin, today, with the image at the top of the page. This is one of the closest images, to date, of the very center of our Milky Way Galaxy. This is a mosaic of images focusing from between 400 light-years and 900 light-years near the constellation Sagittarius. This image reveals hundreds of white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes bathed in an incandescent fog of multi-million-degree gas. It gives us, all, a new perspective on how the turbulent Galactic Center region affects the evolution of the galaxy as a whole. Looking at the very center of this image, you can see a white patch. At the very center of this white patch is a supermassive black hole. It is believed that most galaxies have a black hole (or supermassive black hole) at their center. The colors, in this image, indicate the X-Ray energy bands. They breakdown as; red=Low, green=medium and blue= high. The outflow of gases, from the Galactic Center region, which has been enriched by the frequent destruction of stars nourishes the galactic suburbs like Earth.

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entaurus A: Black Hole Outflows From Centaurus A

5(Centaurus A: Black Hole Outflows From Centaurus A)

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For our next image, of this edition of ‘Lost in Space’, I have a spectacular composite image of a Black Hole (and the outflow) at Centaurus A. This is another “Supermassive Black Hole”and we can clearly see the outflow as jets and lobes of galactic material. This image is a composite of orange colors from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope in Chile and blue colors from the Chandra X-Ray telescope. The x-ray jet, in the upper left hand corner, extends about 13,000 light-years away from the black hole. As well, the APEX telescope image shows that the material is jetting from the black hole at about half the speed of light! Using one of more of these space telescopes focusing at the same point in space gives us, not only, the most incredible visual image(s), it also allows scientists to garner the most information and the best comparative studies possible.

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Crab Nebula: The Crab Nebula: A Cosmic Icon

6(Crab Nebula: The Crab Nebula: A Cosmic Icon)

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Here, on Earth, the year was 1054AD. The place, was the constellation Taurus. The event was a death of a star, a supernova. It is now known as The Crab Nebula’. Now 1,000 years later we are just beginning to unlock the many secrets of this resulting Neutron Star. The image, above, is a composite from three different imaging sources; the Chandra X-Ray telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope. Combing the imaging capabilities of these three space telescopes has unlocked many mysteries that this Crab Nebula has jealously guarded for the past thousand years. The Chandra image is shown in blue, the the Hubble’s image(s) are shown in red and yellow and the Spitzer image is shown in purple. The combination of these three imaging sources as given mankind unique insight to the inner workings of this icon of the sky. The information from the Chandra images shows this nebula as mighty cosmic “generator,” which is producing energy at the rate of 100,000 suns. The Crab Nebula is one of the most studied objects in the night sky, making this 1,000 year old neutron star a cosmic icon in the sky!

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Cepheus B: Trigger-Happy Star Formation

7(Cepheus B: Trigger-Happy Star Formation)

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Our next image, above, is of Cepheus B. Cepheus B is a mere 2,400 light-years away from Earth and is in the Milky Way Galaxy. NASA used, both, Chandra and Spitzer to analyze this gas/dust cloud to discover that this cloud is made up of molecular hydrogen and dust. Dust and hydrogen left over from the creation of our galaxy! Let us breakdown this image into its component parts. Our image is broken down as; Spitzer data is shown in red, green and blue and shows the molecular cloud (in the bottom part of the image) plus young stars in and around Cepheus B. Now, the Chandra data is shown in violet, and shows the young stars in the field. The Chandra observations allowed scientists to pick out the young stars within and near Cepheus B, they were identified by their strong x-ray emissions. On the other hand the Spitzer data showed whether the (visible) stars has so-called ‘protoplanetary’ disc(s)around them as such discs only exist in very young star systems. Ones where planets are still forming, so their presence is an indication of the age of a star system.

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Tycho's Supernova Remnant A New View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

8(Tycho’s Supernova Remnant A New View of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant)

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Above, My Dear Shoevians, I have the most recent image of the Tycho’s Supernova Remnant. Also known as SN 1572 is located in the constellation Cassiopeia. The appearance of SN 1572, in the Milky Way Galaxy, was one of just eight supernova’s sighted just by the naked eye in November 1572 and is/was one of the most important observation events in the history of astronomy .The appearance of this supernova pushed mankind to develop and produce better astrometric star catalogues. As well, in the Ming dynasty China, the star became an issue between Zhang Juzheng and the young Wanli Emperor: in accordance to the cosmological tradition, the emperor was warned to consider his misbehavior, since the new star was interpreted as an evil omen. This was the very beginning of the west seeing stars as science, whereas the east still associated the stars with dogma and superstition. This image is a composite image made from observations from the Chandra X-Ray telescope and the Calar Alto observatory, in Spain. The, initial, explosion has left a blazing hot cloud of expanding debris (yellow and green) that is visible in x-rays.

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Galactic Center NASA's Great Observatories Examine the Galactic Center Region

9(Galactic Center NASA’s Great Observatories Examine the Galactic Center Region)

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Our next image, My Dear Shoevians, was taken as a part of the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 . It was one of the first really coordinated efforts between three of NASA’s Great Observatories; the Hubble Space Telescope10, the Spitzer Space Telescope11, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory12Their efforts were rewarded with the collaboration to produce the single most unprecedented image of the central region of our Milky Way galaxy. This image became one of the most admired, awarded and memorable of the entire celebration and gave NASA, and America, greater standing in the international astronomical society. This was a huge boon for NASA, America and our American Know-How. The observations by the Chandra X-Ray telescope to see through the obscuring dust and reveal the intense activity near the galactic core. Note that the center of the galaxy is located within the bright white region to the right of and just below the middle of the image. Below is a breakdown of the contribution(s) of each platform in the production of this historic image.

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Each telescope’s contribution is presented in a different color:

  • Yellow represents the near-infrared observations of Hubble. They outline the energetic regions where stars are being born as well as reveal hundreds of thousands of stars.
  • Red represents the infrared observations of Spitzer. The radiation and winds from stars create glowing dust clouds that exhibit complex structures from compact, spherical globules to long, stringy filaments.
  • Blue and violet represents the X-ray observations of Chandra. X-rays are emitted by gas heated to millions of degrees by stellar explosions and by outflows from the supermassive black hole in the galaxy’s center. The bright blue blob on the left side of the full field image is emission from a double star system containing either a neutron star or a black hole.

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NGC 6872 Galaxy Collision Switches on Black Hole)

13(NGC 6872 Galaxy Collision Switches on Black Hole)

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OK… My Dear Shoevians, it is not the end of the article but one might think so with the sharing of this particular image. Above, we see the collision of two galaxies. They are NGC 6872and IC 4970. IC 4970 is the smaller galaxy at the top of the image. Again, this image was created by using the capabilities of three telescopes. However, this time the capabilities and telescopes involved were: X-ray data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory is shown in purple, while Spitzer Space Telescope’s infrared data is red and finally the optical data comes from the ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) is colored red, green and blue. Since the initial discovery of this collision, scientists have been baffled at where was the galaxy IC 4970 getting energy from? Thanks to Chandra and Spitzer data, IC 4970 is shown to contain an active supermassive black hole that got its fuel supply by stripping cold gas from NGC 6872 and is using it to feed its growing black hole. Without Spitzer and Chandra this would still be a deep mystery!

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E0102-72.3 Adding a New Dimension to an Old Explosion)

14(E0102-72.3 Adding a New Dimension to an Old Explosion)

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For our next image, My Dear Shoevians, we have an explosion remnant known as supernova remnant 1E 0102.2-7219, or “E0102” for short. E0102 is the debris of a very massive star that exploded in the neighboring galaxy known as the ‘Small Magellanic Cloud’.Chandra first looked at this object nearly ten years ago, just months after the telescope was launched in 1999. E0102 is located about 190,000 light years away in the Small Magellanic Cloud, one of the nearest galaxies to the Milky Way. It was created when a star that was much more massive than the Sun exploded, an event that would have been visible from the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth over 1000 years ago. In this latest image of E0102, the lowest-energy X-rays are colored orange, the intermediate range of X-rays is cyan, and the highest-energy X-rays Chandra detected are blue. An optical image from the Hubble Space Telescope (in red, green and blue) shows additional structure in the remnant and also reveals foreground stars in the field.

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M101 A Spectacular Image to Celebrate IYA2009

15(M101 A Spectacular Image to Celebrate IYA2009)

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Above, My Dear Shoevians, you see a dynamic image of the spiral galaxy M101 also known as M101. M101 is a face-on spiral galaxy located about 22 million light-years from our Milky Way Galaxy in the constellation Ursa Major. It is very similar to our Milky Way in many respects, except it is much larger. Once again this image is a composite of data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. The colors correspond to the following wavelengths: The X-rays detected by Chandra are colored blue. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, the debris from exploded stars, and material zooming around black holes and neutron stars. The red color shows Spitzer’s view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. Finally, the yellow coloring is visible light data from Hubble. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. This image was distributed to more than 100; planetariums, museums, nature centers, and schools across the country in conjunction with Galileo’s birthday on February 15, 2009.

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RCW 86 A Super-Efficient Particle Accelerator)

16(RCW 86 A Super-Efficient Particle Accelerator)

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This image is a composite from two observatories, the Chandra X-ray telescope and the European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope. We American’s really do have more of a gift for naming our telescopes… don’t you think? 🙂 Now, this image is of RCW 86 a circular supernova remnant. It is believed that this star went supernova about 185 AD, here on Earth, and that Chinese astronomers may have observed the event here on Earth. By studying this remnant, a team of astronomers was able to understand new details about the role of supernova remnants as the Milky Way’s super-efficient particle accelerators. The team shows that the shock wave visible in this area is very efficient at accelerating particles and the energy used in this process matches the number of cosmic rays observed on Earth. I am taken by just how diffuse this supernova has become in just the past 1,900 years. This is just a blink of the eye, in cosmic lifetimes. However, I was struck by the beauty of this image, and it is why I have included it as the last image for this edition of ‘Lost in Space’.

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That’s right this is the last image of this edition of ‘Lost in Space’. All I have left for you, My Dear Shoevians, is a single incredible video! Much of this edition has been focused on supernova and exploding stars. All of them, in the end, creating the Black Holes that are imagined at the center of all galaxies, including our own Milky Way. It is for that reason that I; searched and searched and searched some more until I found what I was looking for. A video of the (believed) process of the ‘Formation of a Black Hole’! Therefore, without further adieu, I give you my one and only video of this edition of ‘Lost in Space’ titled ‘The Formation of a Black Hole’! ENJOY!

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(To view this video Full Screen, CLICK the ‘Video Info’ tab, then CLICK File Name. This will make video Full Screen) 

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That brings us to the very end of this edition of ‘Lost in Space’ My Dear Shoevians. As always, I hope that you all have enjoyed your time spent here, today. That you have found the images pleasing, the information helpful and your time spent here, well spent. If that is the case? I ask you this simple request. Please ‘Like’ and Share’ this article with all your; family, friends, co-workers and acquaintances via your social media outlets. Be it Facebook or Twitter, Instragram or Tumblr. Each and every share and like helps me to reach more and more people with my works, with the knowledge and with the ‘eye-candy’ that is these great images of and from the stars. Here’s to you having a great remainder of the week.

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Adieu!

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Thank you!

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Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe
Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe

© 2010 – 2015 Hanning Web Wurx and The Other Shoe

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Chandra Finds Intriguing Member of Black Hole Family-Tree
Chandra Finds Intriguing Member of Black Hole Family-Tree

                 Welcome back My Dear Shoevians to The Other Shoe. I present to all of you, in this xtra-edtion of ‘Lost in Space’ for August 26th, 2015. Of course this xtra-edition is just a way for me to get my ‘Chandra’ on. Chandra being NASA’s flagship of X-ray astronomy, and the source of all the images in this xtra-edition’ for your weekend viewing pleasure! For all our new Shoevians, the Chandra space telescope is an X-Ray Telescope launched in 1999 by NASA. The images you will see here, today, are combinations of observations by; theChandra X-Ray Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. These two NASA wonders of modern technology and science. Quite honestly, My Dear Shoevians, this article has been ‘In the Works’ for the better part of two weeks. It all started the way many of my articles start, wandering the internet looking for something different to write!

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I had visited the NASA-Curiosity web site and found that the One Year Anniversary had just passed and their was a LOT of material I have to sift through, before I can put together areal tribute to the first year of Curiosity on Mars! So, My Dear Shoevians, look for a One Year Anniversary Edition of The Mars Report coming the first part of next week (August 31stor September 1st, 2105). Not wanting to surmount that particular journey, yet today, I shifted my focus to another of NASA’s projects I had my eye on, Chandra! Chandra is an X-Ray Telescope launched, by NASA, in 1999.

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I have seen some pretty incredible images, in the past few months, coming from the Chandra telescope. So, I headed over to the Chandra site at NASA. Much to my surprise, and my happiness, I found TONS of incredible to awe-inspiring images right at my finger tips. Soon, I became overwhelmed with the number and creative reach of these images. Rather than drown, in the imagery, I downloaded; nine of the most recent images, links for footnotes, and some detail of the images written by the good people at NASA. I put this all into a folder for… TODAY! Today, or rather tonight, it is Tuesday night August 25th, 2015 at about 11:30PM.

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I have all the images uploaded to my four different blog locations, I have all the links to reference the image origins in footnotes, and I have rather long descriptions of the images that I can use to help me write my own content, or use parts to supplement my writing with quotes from NASA. All told, I am now ‘as ready as I am going to be’ to write and publish this article of incredible images from an all NEW source! I do hope that all of you, My Dear Shoevians, enjoy these new images and our newest source for spectacular space images. If all goes well? I will be visiting the Chandra web site several times a month, and we will have another offshoot of ‘Lost in Space’ from Hubble to Chandra! Here goes my best effort at providing you,My Dearest Shoevians, with; more, better and different material, images and scientific exploration.

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Our first image of this edition of ‘Lost in Space’ is/was the image at the top of the page. However, I am going to explain that image when it comes up latter in this article. Therefore, the actual very first image of this edition will be the one right below this paragraph. This is an image of a ‘Super-Massive Black Hole” at the very center of our Milky Way Galaxy. Not everyone knows that the very center of our galaxy, the Milky Way, has a super-massive black hole! I had suspected, for many decades, that this was (in fact) the situation. That, if, our entire ‘reality’ (all of the galaxies, universes and everything) started with a black hole? Then it would stand to reason that the very center of our galaxy would be a black hole. Now, quite honestly, My Dear Shoevians, I did not anticipate that this black hole would be Super-Massive. That took me off guard.

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.NASA's Chandra Detects Record-Breaking Outburst from Milky Way's Black Hole

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(Chandra Detects Record-Breaking Outburst from Milky Way’s Black Hole)

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Oh, FYI, I am writing this article on my other computer… not the laptop that I usually; write, edit, upload and publish with and on. There is nothing wrong with that computer, it is just that I am in way too much pain to use that computer, today. What you, My Dear Shoevians, see above is a combination of images. The Chandra X-Ray Telescope took the originalimage of the x-rays emitting from this supermassive black hole, that is how we find these puppies… radiation found by x-ray searching. Then, they point Hubble at the exact same point, take images, and then overlay the Hubble image over the Chandra image and WaLa! You have the incredibly revealing image that we see, above.

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This is the very center of our Milky Way Galaxy. There we find a “Super-Massive Black Hole” and it is really busy! It is busy blasting “X-Ray Flares”! I could try to put all this into my own words, but the people at NASA really do seem to have a handle on the science that I just don’t Therefore, I will share the quote (below) that was part of the description given on the page with this image. Then, My Dear Shoevians, I will catch you on the other side!

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On September 14, 2013, astronomers caught the largest X-ray flare ever detected from the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, known as Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). This event, which was captured by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, was 400 times brighter than the usual X-ray output from Sgr A*, as described in our press release. The main portion of this graphic shows the area around Sgr A* in a Chandra image where low, medium, and high-energy X-rays are red, green, and blue respectively. The inset box contains an X-ray movie of the region close to Sgr A* and shows the giant flare, along with much steadier X-ray emission from a nearby magnetar, to the lower left. A magnetar is a neutron star with a strong magnetic field. A little more than a year later, astronomers saw another flare from Sgr A* that was 200 times brighter than its normal state in October 2014.”2

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Well! That really does help with the explanation of what we are all seeing. The larger image is of the entire central region of the Milky Way. Then, we see two PIPs (Pictures in Pictures)in the lower right corner. The first one, going from left to right, is the earlier image insert showing the ‘Normal’ x-ray radiation output of this super-massive black hole. Then, the second image (to the right of the first) show the increased output NASA scientists noticed starting in September of 2013. The whole affair is now over, and the black hole has returned to its normal output of x-ray radiation. However, this sighting has helped Sir Stephen Hawking to solidify his theory on black holes, x-ray radiation (the x-ray radiation of black holes was once named/called ‘Hawking Radiation”) at the event horizon. This was in the news just this week, too!

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NASA's Chandra Suggests Black Holes Gorging at Excessive Rates
NASA’s Chandra Suggests Black Holes Gorging at Excessive Rates

3(NASA’s Chandra Suggests Black Holes Gorging at Excessive Rates)

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Our next image, My Dear Shoevians, (above) is evidence of another super-massive black hole that is gorging on space materials at excessive rates! Chandra has studied dozens of these super-massive black holes and have found that quasars are, frequently, found at the center of these areas. That quasars and super-massive black holes form in/around each other. However, as I mentioned the three quasars and super-massive black holes in this image are consuming matter at “excessive rates”! Here, let me (again) quote the scientists at NASA for a better and clearer understanding of the science.

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Astronomers have studied 51 quasars with NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and found they may represent an unusual population of black holes that consume excessive amounts of matter, as described in our latest press release. Quasars are objects that have supermassive black holes that also shine very brightly in different types of light. By examining the X-ray properties with Chandra, and combining them with data from ultraviolet and visible light observations, scientists are trying to determine exactly how these large black holes grow so quickly in the early Universe.

The quasars in this study – including the three shown as Chandra images in the bottom of the graphic – are located between about 5 billion and 11.5 billion light years from Earth. These quasars were selected because they had unusually weak emission from certain atoms, especially carbon, at ultraviolet wavelengths. Also, about 65% of the quasars in this new study were found to be much fainter in X-rays, by about 40 times on average, than typical quasars.

The weak ultraviolet atomic emission and X-ray fluxes from these objects could be an important clue to the question of how a supermassive black hole pulls in matter. Computer simulations show that, at low inflow rates, matter swirls toward the black hole in a thin disk. However, if the rate of inflow is high, the disk can puff up dramatically into a torus or donut that surrounds the inner part of the disk.”4

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Next, is an artist representation of the excessive rates of matter gorging taking place in and around these super-massive black holes and their neighboring quasars. Again, this is not an image taken by either Chandra or the Hubble space telescopes. The top ornage image is the artist representation, and below is actual images taken by the Chandra x-ray telescope. You can clearly see, in the upper image, just how much and how vast the reach and amount of matter these super-massive black holes are pulling into themselves! I simply cannot image being in the space near or around these super-massive black holes. They are completely capable of sucking down the entirely of our solar system in a matter of… … weeks, months, years! Here is the next image, I will catch all of you on the other side!

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Artist Representation of Super-Massive Black Holes Gorging
Artist Representation of Super-Massive Black Holes Gorging

(Artist Representation of Super-Massive Black Holes Gorging)

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Now, My Dear Shoevians, there are not a whole lot of places you can go to see this kind of imaging with all the science explained nice and neat, eh? Oh, bye-the-bye if you are viewing this article at the Blog dot Com web site? Just what do you think of these images with the new theme? Don’t these images just jump off the page?!?! I previewed this new theme a lot,before picking this one, and I really thought that it as just perfect for all my; ‘Lost in Space’ , ‘The Mars Report’ and all the wonderful and incredible articles I write and share that have dozens of images, like these! I hope that you, My Dear Shoevians, really appreciate the change and how the images look with the new theme! Here is a quote, from NASA Scientists, about the image above:

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A new Chandra study indicates the existence of a population of black holes that is consuming extremely large amounts of material.

  • Thick, donut-shaped disks may be surrounding the black holes, blocking much of the light that would otherwise be emitted.

The black holes in these quasars may be growing at an extraordinarily rapid rate.”5

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I mean, that is great and all, but really I included this image because I was just taken aback by the orange image and how they have represented the gorging of these quasars and black holes so accurately! Really. Isn’t that image with all the orange just awesome? Now, on to our next image for today. WOW! It is only page 8, and I am already 1/3 the way through writing this article! At this rate I should be publishing this article at about 3AM! That is not really bad for a article of this size and scope! I just hope that nobody needs to call and talk to me, tomorrow, until about noon! 🙂

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NGC 5813: Chandra Finds Evidence for Serial Black Hole Eruptions
NGC 5813: Chandra Finds Evidence for Serial Black Hole Eruptions

6(NGC 5813: Chandra Finds Evidence for Serial Black Hole Eruptions)

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Awww… purple!!!! The image, above, is of the group of galaxies names NGC-5813. This group of galaxies have been the focus of immense study and have brought scientists to the conclusion that this super-massive black hole has been responsible for repeated (or Serial) eruptions, over the past 50 million years, and that his has permanently rearranged the galaxy around. It is science, and discoveries, like these that make me a very grateful human being living in a quite docile solar system in a very docile galaxy, the Milky Way. No galaxies colliding with other galaxies. No super-massive black holes erupting x-rays, or gorging on matter from our solar system. Our solar system, and our Milky Way Galaxy, are a lot like Southern California’s weather. Sun goes up, sun goes down. Sun goes up, sun goes down. Repeat. Now, for more of the scientific explanation of the image we see above.

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Astronomers have used NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory to show that multiple eruptions from a supermassive black hole over 50 million years have rearranged the cosmic landscape at the center of a group of galaxies.

Scientists discovered this history of black hole eruptions by studying NGC 5813, a group of galaxies about 105 million light years from Earth. These Chandra observations are the longest ever obtained of a galaxy group, lasting for just over a week. The Chandra data are shown in this new composite image where the X-rays from Chandra (purple) have been combined with visible light data (red, green and blue).

Galaxy groups are like their larger cousins, galaxy clusters, but instead of containing hundreds or even thousands of galaxies like clusters do, galaxy groups are typically comprised of 50 or fewer galaxies. Like galaxy clusters, groups of galaxies are enveloped by giant amounts of hot gas that emit X-rays.

The erupting supermassive black hole is located in the central galaxy of NGC 5813. The black hole’s spin, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet.”7

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Well, My Dear Shoevians, it looks like there is going to me more like ten images today and not the nine I had previously mentioned. I had left out one of the images; link, narrative and name. I have, since I found the problem, added the link, name and information for out next image for this edition of ‘Lost in Space’. I really cannot think of a better group of people toget ‘Lost in Space’ with, or better stars and images to share whilst we are lost! Now, let me share our next image, and I will catch you on the other side!

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Chandra Finds Intriguing Member of Black Hole Family-Tree
Chandra Finds Intriguing Member of Black Hole Family-Tree
8(NGC 2276: NASA’s Chandra Finds Intriguing Member of Black Hole Family Tree)

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Our image, above, is of the galaxy NGC-2276. It is located 100 million light-years from our earth here in the Milky Way. Now, the reason for its inclusion in this article, and the reason that NASA has found it “Intriguing” is that NGC-2276 contains a black hole in a state of evolution not previously seen before! The discovery of this black hole, at this time, helps to fill in the holes in the evolution of black holes. Much like the finding of Cro-Mangon man helped scientists fill in a hole in man’s evolutionary chain. As usual, my abilities to share this scientific information are adequate, but let me give the scientists at NASA a swing! I will catch you on the other side! 🙂

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A newly discovered object in the galaxy NGC 2276 may prove to be an important black hole that helps fill in the evolutionary story of these exotic objects, as described in our latestpress release. The main image in this graphic contains a composite image of NGC 2766 that includes X-rays from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory (pink) combined with optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Digitized Sky Survey (red, green and blue). The inset is a zoom into the interesting source that lies in one of the galaxy’s spiral arms. This object, called NGC 2276-3c, is seen in radio waves (red) in observations from the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network, or EVN.

Astronomers have combined the X-ray and radio data to determine that NGC 2766-3c is likely an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). As the name suggests, IMBHs are black holes that are larger than stellar-mass black holes that contain about five to thirty times the mass of the Sun, but smaller than supermassive black holes that are millions or even billions of solar masses. The researchers estimated the mass of NGC 2766-3c using a well-known relationship between how bright the source is in radio and X-rays, and the mass of the black hole. The X-ray and radio brightness were based on observations with Chandra and the EVN. They found that NGC 2276-3c contains about 50,000 times the mass of the Sun.”9

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50,00 TIMES the mass of our sun, Sol! WOOF! That is incredible, to say the least. I am just learning so much, in this edition of ‘Lost in Space’. Oh, bye the way, did I tell you, My Dear Shoevians? Tell you that a couple of school teachers (here in the states) have picked up (via Pintrest) MY ‘Lost in Space’ as/for a TEACHING TOOL?!?!? YES! I received notification, via pintrest, that two Middle School teachers, right here in America, are using my editions of ‘Lost in Space’ to TEACH about the stars and our solar system! Amazing, I have always wanted to be a teacher… Now, my writing is used in teaching of dozens of students all over America! That makes me really feel like I have reached a benchmark in my writing and publishing career! Drop me a message, or comment, and tell me what you My Dear Shoevians think about my article series ‘Lost in Space’ being used to teach Middle School students about the stars and galaxies around us! Just cool enough for school! 🙂

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NGC 1333: Stellar Sparklers That Last
NGC 1333: Stellar Sparklers That Last

10(NGC 1333: Stellar Sparklers That Last)

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At 780 light-years from Earth the galaxy group named NGC-1333 is our next subject. The image, above, is really quite incredible because of the way it has been created for our viewing pleasure. This image is not just done with the imaging capabilities of Chandra, or any other one space telescope. No, rather, this image is the combination of many space and earth based telescopes, and a a testament to the capabilities, and potential, of many scientists and scientific groups working together. Again, let me have the good people as NASA explain this, better.

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This new composite image combines X-rays from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory (pink) with infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) as well as optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory Mayall 4-meter telescope on Kitt Peak (red, green, blue). The Chandra data reveal 95 young stars glowing in X-ray light, 41 of which had not been identified previously using infrared observations with Spitzer because they lacked infrared emission from a surrounding disk.

To make a detailed study of the X-ray properties of young stars, a team of astronomers, led by Elaine Winston from the University of Exeter, analyzed both the Chandra X-ray data of NGC 1333, located about 780 light years from Earth, and of the Serpens cloud, a similar cluster of young stars about 1100 light years away. They then compared the two datasets with observations of the young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, perhaps the most-studied young star cluster in the Galaxy.”11

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Even if Republicans refuse to work with Democrats in the House of Representatives? It IS good to know that scientists from five different space observation organizations from five different locations around the United States all worked together to make this image an incredible image to behold, and an incredible image to hold-up as a testament to the potential of Americans working TOGETHER!

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NGC 2207 and IC 2163: Galactic Get-Together has Impressive Light Display
NGC 2207 and IC 2163: Galactic Get-Together has Impressive Light Display

(NGC 2207 and IC 2163: Galactic Get-Together has Impressive Light Display)

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Again, in the spirit of working together we see two galaxiesworking together to create an impressive light display! LOL, not really. It is an impressive light display, to be sure, but I am pretty darn sure that the inhabitants (f there are any) are not working together to collide their galaxies just for our entertainment! NGC-2207 and IC-2163 are, roughly, 100 million light-years away from our Earth. They are, both, spiral arm galaxies just like our Milky Way! They are in the process of colliding into each other, and making an incredible light display, in the process. The galaxy to the right, IC-2163, appears to be a much older galaxy. See how the arms are more spread out? How the lines of stars do not wrap around each other? Now, look to the galaxy to the left, NGC-2207. In this galaxy we can clearly see it is much younger. The arms are still wrapped tightly around the galactic center. The star, within the arms, are close and compact. It is a shame that these two celestial giants will meet their doom in a spectacular display of lights. Here is some more information from the scientists at NASA:

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Located about 130 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Canis Major, this pair of spiral galaxies has been caught in a grazing encounter. NGC 2207 and IC 2163 have hosted three supernova explosions in the past 15 years and have produced one of the most bountiful collections of super bright X-raylights known. These special objects – known as “ultraluminous X-ray sources” (ULXs) – have been found using data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory.

As in our Milky Way galaxy, NGC 2207 and IC 2163 are sprinkled with many star systems known as X-ray binaries, which consist of a star in a tight orbit around either a neutron star or a “stellar-mass” black hole. The strong gravity of the neutron star or black hole pulls matter from the companion star. As this matter falls toward the neutron star or black hole, it is heated to millions of degrees and generates X-rays.

ULXs have far brighter X-rays than most “normal” X-ray binaries. The true nature of ULXs is still debated, but they are likely a peculiar type of X-ray binary. The black holes in some ULXs may be heavier than stellar mass black holes and could represent a hypothesized, but as yet unconfirmed, intermediate-mass category of black holes.

This composite image of NGC 2207 and IC 2163 contains Chandra data in pink, optical light data from the Hubble Space Telescope in red, green, and blue (appearing as blue, white, orange, and brown), and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope in red.12

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That image is going to be hard to beat! However, don’t worry yourself too much, because I do believe that I have it beat (and still keeping the best for last, as always!) with this next image. So far, today, we have witnessed; gorging super-massive black holes, stellar sparklers that last, and two spiral arm galaxies in the process of colliding. Now, My Dear Shoevians, I have to share… … … (drum roll, please)… an ‘Exploded Star Blooms Like a Flower’! Check it out, and I will see you on the other side!

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G299.2-2.9: Exploded Star Blooms Like a Cosmic Flower
G299.2-2.9: Exploded Star Blooms Like a Cosmic Flower

13(G299.2-2.9: Exploded Star Blooms Like a Cosmic Flower)

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WOOF! Sorry about my linguistic digress, but My Dear Shoevians, WOOF! This is an incredible image of a stellar phenomenon that, strangely, resembles a simple and basic feature of plant life here on Earth! Our cosmic explorations certainly do take us to places unknown, that appear to us as known! This star, G229.2-2.9, is only about 100,000 light-years from Earth. So close, and yet so far… in time, too! The explosion, that created this blossom-like cosmic array, happen (roughyl) 4,500 years ago, or about the time that the Egyptians were building their very first pyramids in the sands of Egypt. Now, My Dear Shoevians, this is not a nebula (the factory for stars), this is not the remnants of a galaxy. This is just the remnants of a exploded star! A star that went super-nova about 4,500 years ago and left us with a wondrous and incredible image to view, to enjoy and to learn from. Here is a bit more of the science from the good people at NASA:

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G299 was left over by a particular class of supernovas called Type Ia. Astronomers think that a Type Ia supernova is a thermonuclear explosion – involving the fusion of elements and release of vast amounts of energy – of a white dwarf star in a tight orbit with a companion star. If the white dwarf’s partner is a typical, Sun-like star, the white dwarf can become unstable and explode as it draws material from its companion. Alternatively, the white dwarf is in orbit with another white dwarf, the two may merge and can trigger an explosion.

Regardless of their triggering mechanism, Type Ia supernovas have long been known to be uniform in their extreme brightness, usually outshining the entire galaxy where they are found. This is important because scientists use these objects as cosmic mileposts, allowing them to accurately measure the distances of galaxies billions of light years away, and to determine the rate of expansion of the Universe.

Traditional theoretical models of Type Ia supernovas generally predict that these explosions would be symmetric, creating a near perfect sphere as they expand. These models have been supported by results showing that remnants of Type Ia supernovas are more symmetric than remnants of supernovas involving the collapse of massive stars.”14

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Well, My Dear Shoevians, I wasn’t going to mention this until the end of the article… but I just cannot wait. As of that last image credit, this edition of ‘Lost in Space’ qualifies of‘Gargantuan’ status by The Other Shoe publication rules! It is over a dozen pages in length (content, we are currently on page 18), and contains at least 14 footnotes. That was #14 footnote for the last image. Thankfully, I am nearly done with the writing of this article. It is 1:46AM and I am in horrific pain, and really need to get some rest… sleep. Now, for our nest-to-last image for the day. See you, My Dear Shoevians, on the other side!

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A Precocious Black Hole
A Precocious Black Hole

15(A Precocious Black Hole)

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Located 220 million light-years from our Milky Way Galaxy this black hole has grown too fast and too large for its host galaxy. The host galaxy is CID-947 and, as we can clearly see, this black hole is bursting out of the host galaxy. It makes for an incredible image, for our viewing pleasure, but calls into question many scientific beliefs about black holes and their relationship with their host galaxies. Shattering understanding is something that space and space exploration does on a regular basis. It is something that you, My Dear Shoevians, would have to get used to if you wanted to go into this field of scientific exploration. Now, as usual, let’s get some more information from the good people at NASA:

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Researchers have discovered a black hole that grew much more quickly than its host galaxy. The discovery calls into question previous assumptions on the development of galaxies.

The black hole was originally discovered using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, and was then detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and by ESA’s XMM-Newton and NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory.

Benny Trakhtenbrot, from ETH Zurich’s Institute for Astronomy, and an international team of astrophysicists, performed a follow-up observation of this black hole using the 10 meter Keck telescope in Hawaii and were surprised by the results. The data, collected with a new instrument, revealed a giant black hole in an otherwise normal, distant galaxy, called CID-947. Because its light had to travel a very long distance, the scientists were observing it at a period when the universe was less than two billion years old, just 14 percent of its current age (almost 14 billion years have passed since the Big Bang).

An analysis of the data collected in Hawaii revealed that the black hole in CID-947, with nearly 7 billion solar masses, is among the most massive black holes discovered up to now. What surprised researchers in particular was not the black hole’s record mass, but rather the galaxy’s mass. “The measurements correspond to the mass of a typical galaxy,” says Trakhtenbrot, a postdoctoral fellow working within the Extragalactic Astrophysics research group…”16

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That, My Dear Shoevians, brings us to the final image of this ‘Gargantuan’ edition of ‘Lost in Space’. As usual, I have saved the best for last, just as planned and just as always. Let me take a moment here to say “Thank you!” for dropping by, today. Thank you for making The Other Shoe a place you come to read, look at incredible images and (maybe) learn a little. I always hope that you have enjoyed your visit, and that you tell others of your time spent here, so that they too can come and find a nice place to read and learn, and have fun! Now, for out final image(s) of this edition. I will ‘see’ you on the other side!

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IYL 2015: Chandra Celebrates The International Year of Light
IYL 2015: Chandra Celebrates The International Year of Light

17(IYL 2015: Chandra Celebrates The International Year of Light)

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This is, actually, FIVE images in one place. I managed to copy the information for four of the images, and I will share that with all of you, My Dear Shoevians, below:

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Messier 51 (M51):
This galaxy, nicknamed the “Whirlpool,” is a spiral galaxy, like our Milky Way, located about 30 million light years from Earth. This composite image combines data collected at X-ray wavelengths by Chandra (purple), ultraviolet by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX, blue); visible light by Hubble (green), and infrared by Spitzer (red).

SNR E0519-69

SNR E0519-69.0:
When a massive star exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way, it left behind an expanding shell of debris called SNR 0519-69.0. Here, multimillion degree gas is seen in X-rays from Chandra (blue). The outer edge of the explosion (red) and stars in the field of view are seen in visible light from Hubble.

 

MSH 11-62

MSH 11-62:
When X-rays, shown in blue, from Chandra and XMM-Newton are joined in this image with radio data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (pink) and visible light data from the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS, yellow), a new view of the region emerges. This object, known as MSH 11-62, contains an inner nebula of charged particles that could be an outflow from the dense spinning core left behind when a massive star exploded.

Cygnus A

Cygnus A:
This galaxy, at a distance of some 700 million light years, contains a giant bubble filled with hot, X-ray emitting gas detected by Chandra (blue). Radio data from the NSF’s Very Large Array (red) reveal “hot spots” about 300,000 light years out from the center of the galaxy where powerful jets emanating from the galaxy’s supermassive black hole end. Visible light data (yellow) from both Hubble and the DSS complete this view.

RCW 86

RCW 86:
This supernova remnant is the remains of an exploded star that may have been witnessed by Chinese astronomers almost 2,000 years ago. Modern telescopes have the advantage of observing this object in light that is completely invisible to the unaided human eye. This image combines X-rays from Chandra (pink and blue) along with visible emission from hydrogen atoms in the rim of the remnant, observed with the 0.9-m Curtis Schmidt telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (yellow).

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That brings us to 2AM… to my very end of tolerance to my pain, and to the time when I simply must get some rest for tomorrow. I will be unable to publish this article tonight, Tuesday August 25th, 2015. However, tomorrow is Wednesday and I will have this article published by 11AM to Noon Pacific time for everyone’s viewing pleasure. This really has been a‘Gargantuan’ edition of ‘Lost in Space’. Weighing in at over TWENTY pages in length, more than 16 footnotes and TEN (Really nine + 5) images for your viewing pleasure. I hope that this article has satisfied your yen for space images and science.

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As always, it has been my pleasure to bring these incredible images to you, My Dear Shoevians. If you have enjoyed yourself? All I ask is that you ‘Like’ and ‘Share’ this work with all your; family, friends, co-workers and acquaintances via your social media! You can find me on Facebook under The Other Shoe. There are four blog locations, each with a different theme, different ‘looks’ and a different way of presenting images and the like. I hope everyone has a great rest of the week, and I look forward to seeing you all again, right here, soon!

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Adieu!

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Thank YOU!

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Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe
Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe

© 2010 – 2015 Hanning Web Wurx and The Other Shoe

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A Precocious Black Hole

Welcome back My Dear Shoevians to The Other Shoe. Today is Tuesday August 25th, 2015 and this is the most recent edition of (and the return of) ‘Coming Soon to The Other Shoe’. When I started by battle with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (nearly one year ago) I stopped publishing this article series. I did this because… well, My Dear Shoevians, I did not want to promise articles and have my health prohibit my keeping a promise. Today I a, going to give it a go and write and publish my very first edition of ‘Coming Soon to The Other Shoe’ in a long, long, time.