July 2015

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the lunar module pilot of the first lunar landing mission, stands next to a United States flag July 20, 1969 during an Apollo 11
Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the lunar module pilot of the first lunar landing mission, stands next to a United States flag July 20, 1969 during an Apollo 11

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Welcome back My Dear Shoevians to The Other Shoe. Today (July 28th, 2013) with this article I will engage and inform you, My Dear Shoevians, in a way and a theater of discussion which we are unaccustomed. I, generally, refrain from writing and publishing articles about domestic and/or foreign policy. In specific a discussion on American foreign policy and/or international treaties and their content. However, the current ‘P5+1 Iranian Nuclear Deal’ is of such international and historic significance I would be completely socially remiss if I did not share my insights and opinion. Therefore, My Dear Shoevians, I beg your indulgence (this time) while I work to dispel harmful rhetoric, enhance broader understanding and engage the men and women of America and the international community. Thank you for your understanding and support.

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In the following pages I will do my best to explain my support for this historic agreement. I will share passages from the deal, itself, and the history of the partnership that fathered the deal. It is not my; intent, desire or ultimate goal to change, alter or modify anyone’s opinion of this deal. If that were to happen, it would not be; me, my words or my abilities as a writer that changed or altered your opinions it would be the facts. It is the facts that convinced me that this deal was the best possible scenario for; America, England, Russia, China, Germany and Israel. It will be the facts that enhance your, My Dear Shoevians, your understanding of this historic nuclear deal. I am just a messenger with a desire to see the children, and grandchildren, of my family and friends to grow up in a peaceful world.

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I feel that, in order to put this agreement, in the proper light and context I must go backwards in time. I had to go backwards in time to find an analogous situation/setting and international context and framework. Thankfully I did not have to go back very far, and found an analogous circumstance in, what I perceive to be, a mutually common time period. In the later part of World War 2 America started a project code named ‘The Manhattan Project’[1]. The Manhattan projects prime directive was to create, and build, a bomb of mass destruction. The purpose of this weapon of mass destruction was to inflict the greatest amount of human casualties upon Japan, with the minimal amount of American/Allied casualties. This, they believed, would force the hand of the Emperor of Japan, and his war council, and bring about a quick end to the Pacific theater of World War two.

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  The weapon of mass destruction was to be an atomic bomb[2]. The very first atomic bomb was dropped at 8:15AM August 6th, 1945 on the Japanese city of Hiroshima[3]. The next atomic bomb was dropped at 3:15 AM August 9th, 1945 on the Japanese city of Nagasaki[4]. These two bombings changed the course of history for mankind, and threw our race into the ‘Nuclear Age’. Here is a, now, famous quote from the lead designer and head of the ‘Manhattan Project’ J. Robert Oppenheimer[5]. Little did they, or all the support personnel and military personnel involved in ‘The Manhattan Project’ (including my father), know that they had just started (what later, and for all of history be known as) ‘The Cold War’[6].

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The ‘Cold War’ was an arms race between the United States and the (then) United Soviet Socialist Republic. This cold war was, in actuality, the single greatest expenditure of money and human effort since the Great Pyramids of Giza[7].This war raged from 1947 to 1991. It is estimated that the total cost of the nuclear devices, built by America, during the Cold War met or exceeded $13.1 TRILLION dollars[8] (in 1996 U.S. dollars). The graphic, below, shows the growing number of nuclear devices during the Cold War.

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U.S. & U.S.S.R. Nuclear Stockpiles 1950-2010
U.S. & U.S.S.R. Nuclear Stockpiles 1950-2010

(U.S. & U.S.S.R. Nuclear Stockpiles 1950-2010)

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I realize that the chart above is not very specific, when it comes to megatonnage, so I have included a more accurate chart, below, that show megatonnage by nation from 1964 to 1974.

 

 

 

Strategic nuclear missiles, warheads and throw-weights of United States and Soviet Union, 1964–1982[16][17]

Year

Launchers

Warheads

Megatonnage

United States

Soviet Union

United States

Soviet Union

United States

Soviet Union

1964

2,416

375

6,800

500

7,500

1,000

1966

2,396

435

5,000

550

5,600

1,200

1968

2,360

1,045

4,500

850

5,100

2,300

1970

2,230

1,680

3,900

1,800

4,300

3,100

1972

2,230

2,090

5,800

2,100

4,100

4,000

1974

2,180

2,380

8,400

2,400

3,800

4,200

1976

2,100

2,390

9,400

3,200

3,700

4,500

1978

2,058

2,350

9,800

5,200

3,800

5,400

1980

2,042

2,490

10,000

7,200

4,000

6,200

1982

2,032

2,490

11,000

10,000

4,100

8,200

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America and the U.S.S.R. were engaged in the single most (potentially) destructive stockpiling of weapons in the history of our species. Mankind, in 1962, was testing nuclear weapons above ground all over the globe. They tested them above ground, below ground, and under water. Nobody had a clue as to the long-term effects this kind of nuclear weapons testing would have on; the planet, the environment and (ultimately) on the genetic evolution of man. Then, after eight long years of negotiation, on August 5th 1963 under the direction of President John Kennedy the; United States, United Kingdom and the U.S.S.R. signed the ‘Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty’[9]. This treaty would limit the testing of nuclear weapons; in the atmosphere, in space, and underwater. Further:

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The treaty:

  • prohibited nuclear weapons tests or other nuclear explosions under water, in the atmosphere, or in outer space

  • allowed underground nuclear tests as long as no radioactive debris falls outside the boundaries of the nation conducting the test

  • pledged signatories to work towards complete disarmament, an end to the armaments race, and an end to the contamination of the environment by radioactive substances.[10]

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President Kennedy faced a greatly divided Senate. However, the final vote in the Senate, on September 23rd, 1963, was 80-19. President Kennedy signed the ratified treaty on October 7th, 1963.

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President John Kennedy Signing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963
President John Kennedy Signing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963

[11]

(President John Kennedy Signing the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963)

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Thirty-three years later the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty[12].The world, mankind and all of the advanced nations on earth had reached an agreement, and more importantly, and understanding that nuclear testing was bad for mankind. It took many decades and initially there was little support, here in America, for this ban. As is today, many people loudly complained that Kennedy was “appeasing” the U.S.S.R., that the U.S.S.R. “could not be trusted” and that the test ban would be ignored by the Soviets and would leave America behind “in the development of advanced nuclear weaponry”.

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America, now, posses the most advanced nuclear and thermonuclear weapons and technology on the planet. The fears were unjustified, and if we allowed our worst nature to rule our objective actions?

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The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 was just the very first step, for America and world, in the right direction. I am going to leave out a great many agreements, treaties and the like in an effort to speed this part of the article. Now, I will skip forward to 1993, and the Presidency of Republican President Ronald Reagan. Whereas the treaty of 1963 had greatly limited the testing of nuclear devices and technology, the; United States, United Kingdom, France, China, and the U.S.S.R. were amassing huge stockpiles of nuclear devices of all kinds. From Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles to bombers designed specifically to drop nuclear bombs. The largest ever built, most well known and even featured in a major motion picture directed by Stanley Kubrick ‘Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb’[13]. The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress[14] was America’s ultimate high-altitude strategic nuclear bomber.

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Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress

[15]

(Boeing B-52 Stratofortress)

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At this point, in the Cold War, America and the U.S.S.R. had nuclear bombs and devices; Flying in aircraft 24/7/365, in nuclear submarines in three to five of the world’s oceans, hidden in bunkers deep under the earth all through the Plains States in America, on moveable ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile) launchers all over the Soviet satellite nations and anywhere and everywhere they could house these deadly devices. At the height of this build up, it was theorized, mankind had enough nuclear devices to level the earth “Fifty times over”. This insanity had to stop, and it took a courageous and charismatic leader to accomplish this task.

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The START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty[16]) treaties were first announced, by President Ronald Reagan, in a commencement address at his alma mater, Eureka College, on 9 May, 1982[17]. After nine years of negotiation and debate, and to the consternation of many Republicans (some comparing President Reagan and President Bush’s actions“appeasement the likes of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain”… SOUND FAMILIAR???) on July 31sat, 1991 President George H. W. Bush and Russian President Mikhail Gorbachev signed the START 1 agreement – on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. It was a long and hard slog for both of these Republican Presidents. As I mentioned above, much of the very same hyperbolic and inflammatory rhetoric, that we hear directed at President Barrack Obama, was (then) directed at both President Ronald Reagan and President George H.W. Bush.

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Nobody trusted the United Soviet Socialist RepublicNOBODY! Leaders of many of our European allies were gravely concerned that the USSR would, not only, not honor the agreement, but would use the perceived peace to “build their nuclear capabilities and research and development of new nuclear devices”. However, as President Reagan stated at the signing of the INF Treaty, on 8 December 1987 “”doveryai no proveryai” (trust, but verify)[18]. It took a courageous and charismatic leader to start the process and help guide the next President to the conclusion. It took a leader to lead the world, both free and Russian, to the world we live in today. One, not free of, but with far less nuclear weapon stockpiles.

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My Dear Shoevians, I have taken you all down this historic path for two reasons. One, to show everyone (even President Obama’s detractors) that nobody can ‘see the future’ and that even the terrifying and dark United Soviet Socialist Republic could engage in meaningful diplomacy for the greater good of mankind. That, even though they could not be trusted, that did not stop Republican Presidents from working with our perceived nemesis to broker a deal that made the world a better and safer place for all mankind. Ultimately all the detractors became fan boys of President Reagan and now they point to this accomplishment (which they were convinced was “appeasement”) as the legacy of a great President.

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Well, My Dear Shoevians, I am at a crossroads. It is now 8:00PM PDST here in California. I have yet to eat any dinner, and I had plans of relaxing, tonight, and maybe playing some World of Warcraft. WoW is the only place where I can afford to (and safely) ride a horse, anymore. Where I can hop on a flying mount and go for a leisurely flight over forests and streams. Where I can sit in a pub, listen to music, and relax by an open fire. WoW is very relaxing for me. As well, I can play the game and; fight, battle and engage in Quests that give me gold and armor and glory. I only have about three weeks left of the time Allen purchased for me, at Christmas. When that purchased time has passed, I will be financially unable to purchase more… and further enjoy this relaxing and entertaining game. I do value every moment I can spend in this virtual reality, where I have not been stripped of my ability to walk, where I can safely mount and ride a horse, and sit by a quietly babbling stream and fish.

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Therefore, as I have said, I am at a cross-roads, My Dear Shoevians. Should I end this part of the article. Post these nine pages for everyone to read, play an hour or two of WoW, then get back to finishing this article with ‘Part Two – The Agreement’? My Dear Shoevians, I have already done my homework. I have, right here on the screen in front of me, the agreement. I have passages highlighted, that I want to share. I have passages that I want to use in arguments for this agreement highlighted and copy/pasted. Unlike all too many of our Representatives (of both parties), I have read this agreement. Just today, someone I really do not know, asked me this question:

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“Do you trust Iran?”

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I did not have it ready for a retort to him, right at that moment, but here is my retort… now (this is from the PREAMBLE which IS very IMPORTANT)

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The Islamic Republic of Iran and the E3/EU+3 (China, France, Germany, the

Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States, with the High

Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy)

have decided upon this long-term Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

(JCPOA). This JCPOA, reflecting a step-by-step approach, includes the reciprocal

commitments as laid down in this document and the annexes hereto and is to

be endorsed by the United Nations (UN) Security Council.

ii. The full implementation of this JCPOA will ensure the exclusively peaceful

nature of Iran’s nuclear programme.

iii. Iran reaffirms that under no circumstances will Iran ever seek, develop or

acquire any nuclear weapons.”

Quote From Preamble of the Iranian Nuclear P5+1 Deal

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So, ‘do I trust’ the Supreme Leader of Iran the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to; go on the airwaves of the state run television and radio and announce his ‘undying love of America/Americans and President Obama’? NO! Do I trust the Supreme Leader of Iran the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to; stop his pronouncements of ‘Death to Americans’ and ‘Death to Israel”?NO! Do I trust the Supreme Leader of Iran the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to; not cheat on his thirteen wives with a chambermaid? NO! Do I trust the Supreme Leader of Iran the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to HIMSELF adhere to the letter of this agreement. NO! But, then again, it will not BE the Supreme Leader of Iran the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei that is required to; allow IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) inspections of Iran’s nuclear facilities. It WILL be the responsibility of the (I will use our Cabinet Level Equal as an example) Secretary of Iran’s Nuclear Facilities to ALLOW IAEA Inspectors inspections as outlined by the agreement. YES!

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Yes, My Dear Shoevians, I do expect that Iran will keep the terms of this agreement. If for no other reason than; they saw what America did when Iraq and Saddam Hussein did not allow IAEA inspectors access to his nuclear facilities. I do think that Iran will adhere to the agreements it has made directly with the IAEA about an inspection schedule.BECAUSE, you see, there are carrots and there are sticks in this agreement. OK… I have decided… I will not be; finishing this article tonight… I need some relaxation. As well, this article is already ELEVEN pages long. I want this article to be of a normal reading length, or no one will take the time and effort to actually read this article.

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I am going to sum up this ‘Part One’ and then I am going to publish it and then relax. Then, tomorrow, I am going to start, and finish, ‘Part Two – The Agreement’. That way I have all the time I need to; quote, highlight, create arguments, answer (stupid) questions, DEBUNK Republican rhetoric, and generally present this agreement in the light it needs and deserves! Then, I am going to send a link to the article to the campaigns of; Hillary Clinton, Bernie Sanders, Jeb Bush, Ted Cruz, Donald Trump and ALL the Presidential candidates for both parties. I, kind of, doubt that I will hear back from any, but it is worth a try. Oh, and I will send links to; Chris Matthews, ‘Face the Nation’, ‘Meet the Press’, and ‘This Week’.

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My Dearest Shoevians, I have read this agreement. All 159 pages of it… good and bad… procedural and dull… historic and gripping. I keep hearing Republicans saying that “we are giving Iran BILLIONS!!!”. Today I even heard, during the hearing with Sec. Kerry, a Republican say that “We are giving BILLIONS away to Iran… as a SIGNING BONUS!!” Nothing could be more BOGUS!!! What America (and ALL of the P5+1 NATIONS) are DOING is giving Iran ITS money BACK! Yes, we have held billions of; assets, cash, securities and annuities from Iran over the past decade. This is money that Iran EARNED through; the sale of oil, gas and oil leases, property sales and all manner of LEGAL financial transactions. What we are doing is RETURNING the LEGALLY  E A R N E D money back to Iran. Nothing more, and nothing less.

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Well, it is now 9:00PM PDST and another hour has passed. I still have to; upload images, transfer content from Word to FOUR blogs, and then publish this article to FOUR blog locations. I might be done by midnight. So, that brings us to the close of this “Part One – Historic Relevance’ of the article “Iran – Deal or War’. Catchy title, huh? Well, it does pretty much sum up the situation, according to Republicans. I mean, in September ALL the sanctions END! There is NO WAY our intransigent Republican lead Congress can EVER come up with; new sanctions, get approval of a majority of BOTH Houses, get the approved language over to the United Nations Security Council, get the Security Council to VOTE and PASS our new sanctions (without China and/or Russia voting against or abstaining = NON-passage), then DELIVERING the new sanctions to Iran and putting them into effect. ALL by the end of September??? Not bloody likely!!!!

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More of that, tomorrow, My Dear Shoevians. Thank you for dropping by and reading. Again, as always, if you have enjoyed this article, found it of interest or informative? PLEASE ‘Like’ and ‘Share’ this article on your social media. If you liked it, so will your; family, friends, co-workers, and all your extended circles.

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Adieu!

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Thank you!

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Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe
Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe

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© 2010 – 2015 Hanning Web Wurx and The Other Shoe

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P.S. – It is now after 10PM PDST. I am just too tired to; set up the other computer, get the game and add-ons updated, get into the game. = I did NOT get to play WoW tonight, after all. 🙁 = Frown.


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.Veteran NASA Spacecraft Nears 60,000th Lap Around Mars, No Pit Stops

[1]

(Veteran NASA Spacecraft Nears 60,000th Lap Around Mars, No Pit Stops)

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Welcome back MY Dear Shoevians to The Other ShoeUnfortunately I got a bit of a late start, today, on this article. It is currently 2:15 PM PDST and that leaves me in a bit of a rush to publish ‘On Time’ for my Central Timer Zone readers. I found myself engaged in rather heated (one posted asking me to “surrender” in one thread… ROFLOL) exchanges where most ‘gun enthusiasts’ do not respect the rights of the unarmed, over their perceived) right to keep and bear any-and-all arms anywhere and everywhere they desire. Lacking a functional understanding of the English language, I was forced to make an appeal based on wording of the Preamble of the Constitution.

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We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,…”

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Right there, the last three words;  “insure domestic tranquility”. None of them, not a single one, ever showed a single regard for our right to domestic tranquility. Nor would they concede that an armed (an likely hopped up on methamphetamines) redneck with an Ak-47 might scare the bejeezeus out of an average American citizen. For all My Dear Shoevians that read from outside America, this is the quagmire that ‘gun enthusiasts’ have created around an inalienable right of the vast majority of the American population. Enough of that, now on with ‘The Mars Report’.

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With the late start I, unfortunately, did not have time to put together another ‘Gargantuan’ edition of this series. Instead, today, you will have six images, one video and the accompanying explanation and content.

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Our first image appears at the top of the article. This is an artist’s representation of NASA’s Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This June the 23rd the Odyssey spacecraft made its 60,000th orbit over the Martian surface. Its orbiting began on October 23rd, 2001 and on December 15th, 2010 it became the longest orbiting spacecraft over Mars. My, notorious, last image of this edition was taken by Odyssey. An image will take your breath away.

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Now, for our next image of this edition, I give you a July 4th inspired image from the Curiosity rover. Taken September 19th, 2012… well I will just post it and talk on the other side.

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Curiosity's Stars and Stripes
Curiosity’s Stars and Stripes

[2]

(Curiosity’s Stars and Stripes)

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Yes, it is the American Flag! This is an image, taken by Curiosity’s Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), of the American Flag Medallion.  This flag medallion is riveted to the structure of the rover. Not many Americans have seen this medallion; you can now count yourselves among those few. For our next image I have a wonderful and incredible panoramic view taken by the Curiosity rover.

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Panorama from Curiosity's Sol 1000 Location
Panorama from Curiosity’s Sol 1000 Location

[3]

(Panorama from Curiosity’s Sol 1000 Location)

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This incredible image was taken on May 30th, 2015 with the Navigation Camera (Navcam) on Curiosity’s 1,000th day on the Martian surface! This one image is actually a composite of many dozen independent images taken by the Navcam starting on May 27th, 2015. My Dear Shoevians, I try my best to give you one of these incredible panoramic images every couple of months. Americans should be very proud of the hard work NASA scientists and support staff do to keep projects, like the Curiosity rover working and developing and producing science and imagery.

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NASA's Curiosity Rover Inspects Unusual Bedrock
NASA’s Curiosity Rover Inspects Unusual Bedrock

[4]

(NASA’s Curiosity Rover Inspects Unusual Bedrock)

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This rock outcrop, dubbed “Missoula”, by NASA scientists, was discovered near Marias Pass on Mars. Let me take a few moments to break down what appears in this image for you, My Dear Shoevians. This image was taken by the Mars Hand Lens Imager of the Curiosity rover. This target, “Missoula” was unlike anything it had studied before. This rock face contained high amounts of silica. Silica is a combination of silicon and oxygen, commonly known on Earth as Quartz. This is called a ‘Geologic Contact Zone’ due to the meeting of; pale mudstone at the bottom of the outcrop and coarser sandstone at the top of the outcrop.

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“”We found an outcrop named Missoula where the two rock types came together, but it was quite small and close to the ground. We used the robotic arm to capture a dog’s-eye view with the MAHLI camera, getting our nose right in there,” said Ashwin Vasavada, the mission’s project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. MAHLI is short for Mars Hand Lens Imager.”[5]

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This incredible finding was one of the most recent findings by the Curiosity rover, but one of (what is certain to be) thousands upon thousands of discoveries Curiosity will make in its lifetime on the Martian surface. I am very happy that, while all too many Americans, are preoccupied with guns and wars that a majority of Americans revel in our scientific pursuits and accomplishments. All too often American media only carries the ‘Dark Side’ of America, and Americans. Here, at The Other Shoe, I diligently work to show the world a different and better side of America and Americans.

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Gale Crater's Surface Materials
Gale Crater’s Surface Materials

[6]

(Gale Crater’s Surface Materials)

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The image, above, is a mosaic image made from many images taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter. This is ‘Gale Crater’ the home of the Martian Rover Curiosity. Gale Crater is ninety-six (96) miles in diameter. This image is oriented with ‘top-is-North’. I would try and explain the science behind this image, but I will leave it to a quote from the article accompanying this image.

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“The colors come from an image processing technique that identifies mineral differences in surface materials and displays them in false colors. For example, windblown dust appears pale pink and olivine-rich basalt looks purple. The bright pink on Gale’s floor appears due to a mix of basaltic sand and windblown dust. The blue at the summit of Gale’s central mound, Mount Sharp, probably comes from local materials exposed there. The typical average Martian surface soil looks grayish-green. Scientists use false-color images such as these to identify places of potential geologic interest.”

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Next, an homage to the beginnings of ‘The Mars Report’ and one of the very first rover subjects of this article series. More than four years ago, I started writing this article series, when it started I was following two brand new Martian Rovers; Spirit and Opportunity. Unfortunately, two winters ago, we lost Spirit due to a failure of communications. NASA sent commands for Spirit to move to a covered area and to power-down for the Martian Winter. Spirit did not receive the commands, and was left powered up and exposed during a harsh Martian winter season. We have not heard from Spirit again. However, Opportunity just keeps trucking. Operators of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity plan to drive the rover into a valley this month where Opportunity will be active through the long-lived rover’s seventh Martian winter, examining outcrops that contain clay minerals. Recently NASA created, and shared, this video.

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(Opportunity Rover’s 7th Mars Winter to Include New Study Area)

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As always, My Dear Shoevians, as is customary I have saved the very best image, for last. Now, I am not so sure just how each blog location will handle this next image. It is very large in size and scope. I will, likely, have to compress it for use on one or more blog locations. However, if you want to see this image in its original size and scope? Just go to the bottom of the page and click on the corresponding footnote link. That will take you to the NASA/JPL web site page that featured this image. I always do my best to LINK material so that I am not plagiarizing material and so that the real people behind these great images get their due credit. Now, without further adieu, I give you ‘Morning Clouds Atop Martian Mountain’.

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Morning Clouds Atop Martian Mountain
Morning Clouds Atop Martian Mountain

[7]

(Morning Clouds Atop Martian Mountain)

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Taken with the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter this image shows clouds gather in the summit pit, or caldera, of Pavonis Mons, a giant volcano on Mars. This image was taken shortly after the Martian dawn. The clouds are mostly made up of ice crystals. They appear blue, in the image, because the structure of the crystals reflect blue light more strongly than other colors. This image was made by THEMIS through three of its visual-light filters plus a near-infrared filter, and it is approximately true in color. In other words, this image is not ‘false color’ for our viewing. If you were in orbit, over the Martian surface, you could look out a window and this is exactly how it would appear to you, My Dear Shoevians.

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That brings us to the end of this edition of ‘The Mars Report’. As always, My Dear Shoevians, it has been my pleasure to bring this article, these images, and the science and discoveries right to your browser. In hopes that many peoples, from all over the world, get a better and more informed view of America and Americans. We are not all about ‘guns’ and ‘war’. As a matter of fact, a majority of Americans seek a more peaceful nation and world in which to live and raise our children. That view, of America and Americans, is not always featured… even in our own journalism.

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Each and every week, that I am physically able and with less pain, I will work to bring you more and more; science, nature, space, Mars, news, and even some Young Adult Fiction. It is my hope, and dream, to be a small part of a broader understanding of America and Americans… and what we can do for the benefit of all mankind.

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Adieu!

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Thank you!

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Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe
Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe

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© 2010 – 2015 Hanning Web Wurx and The Other Shoe

 


 

[1] http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/veteran-nasa-spacecraft-nears-60000th-lap-around-mars-no-pit-stops

 

[2] http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/multimedia/pia15882.html

 

[3] http://www.nasa.gov/jpl/msl/pia19679/panorama-from-curiositys-sol-1000-location

[4] http://www.nasa.gov/jpl/msl/nasas-curiosity-rover-inspects-unusual-bedrock

[5] http://www.nasa.gov/jpl/msl/nasas-curiosity-rover-inspects-unusual-bedrock

[6] http://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/gale-craters-surface-materials

 

[7] http://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/morning-clouds-atop-martian-mountain

 

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Earth in the constellation Cygnus. It’s about 60% bigger than Earth, NASA says, and is located in its star’s habitable zone — the region where life-sustaining liquid water is possible on the surface of a planet.A visitor there would experience gravity about twice that of Earth’s, and planetary scientists say the odds of it having a rocky surface are “better than even.”While it’s a bit farther from its star than Earth is from the sun, its star is brighter, so the planet gets about the same amount of energy from its star as Earth does from the sun. And that sunlight would be very similar to Earth’s, Jenkins said.The planet “almost certainly has an atmosphere,” Jenkins said, although scientists can’t say what it’s made of. But if the assumptions of planetary geologists are correct, he said, Kepler-452b’s atmosphere would probably be thicker than Earth’s, and it would have active volcanoes.

Source: NASA finds ‘Earth’s bigger, older cousin’ – CNN.com

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This diagram shows the system of planets around the star Gliese 667C. A record-
This diagram shows the system of planets around the star Gliese 667C. A record-

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Welcome back My Dear Shoevians to The Other ShoeWell if this isn’t welcome news, then I have no idea what is! NASA’s Kepler spacecraft has discovered the very first closest ‘earth-like’ planet ever. Situated in the constellation Cygnus a mere 500 light-years away. This planet is no more than a 10th larger than our Earth. With a rotational year of 385 days per year, and a gravity just about twice that of our Earth.

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This artist's impression shows the view from the exoplanet Gliese 667Cd looking towards the planets
This artist’s impression shows the view from the exoplanet Gliese 667Cd looking towards the planets

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The Kepler project has, so far, found two ‘earth-like’ planets since its launch in 2009. It has discovered more than 1,000 planets of which only twelve were earth-sized and in, what is referred to as, the ‘habitabal-zone’. The one viable planet, prior to this discovery, was Kepler-425b. Its work will continue for years to come, but I just thought that this discovery merited mention and notice by you, My Dear Shoevians. 

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Habitable Zone Kepler
Habitable Zone Kepler

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As always, I am happy that you have dropped by and read and enjoy the great images. Have a great end-of-week and I look forward to bringing you more… today, tomorrow.. and for many many days, week,s months and years to come.

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Kepler Discovery
Kepler Discovery

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Earth's Bigger Older Cousin
Earth’s Bigger Older Cousin

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Adieu! 

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Thank you!

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Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe
Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe

 

 © 2010 – 2015 Hanning Web Wurx and The Other Shoe

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New Horizons Spacecraft

New Horizons Spacecraft

[1]

(New Horizons Spacecraft)

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Welcome back My Dear Shoevians to The Other Shoe and the very first article I have written and published in nearly a month! Briefly, I have been plagued… terribly plagued with pains all over my body. From the base of my head all the way down into my arms and hands and now into my thighs and legs. MY spinal stenosis and degenerative disc disease has worsened, greatly. I am completely unable to sit up on the side of my bed and writing/publishing. I simply can not last long enough to do research or gather images for a single article (anywhere from six to fourteen images per article).

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In strides a ‘International Concern’ (that is what I was told to identify the parties involved in assisting me) willing to HELP! They purchased the very ‘Medical Bedside Table’ I pointed out, and have expressed the desire to assist with financing of my first year of an URL (hosting, registration, emails and all) for a web site ALL MY OWN! I am looking at www.theothershoe.co for the All NEW location of the primary blog for The Other Shoe. I will be keeping my blog at WordPress and Blogspot, too. All they have asked in return for their great generosity?

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1) The password to read all the finished pages of ‘The Horror in Smithville.

2) That I give them “First shot” at any novel(s), screenplay(s), and short story(s) that I write and finish in the same one year period.

3) FINISH ONE; novel, screenplay, or short story for them to read.

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That’s IT! They purchased, had shipped and delivered the table I desperately needed and are willing to help with the costs of registration of a domain, web hosting, and email for one blog location outside my current locations. How could I refuse!?!? I didn’t!

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Now, that I have cleared up all your questions My Dear Shoevians, I want to continue with this edition of ‘Lost in Space – New Horizons At Pluto’! As I was writing this article introduction I was also doing my research on the newest images from New Horizions[2]of Pluto and Charon. However, before I present these images and share my thoughts and observations mixed with technical and scientific information from NASA/JPL[3] I would like to take a moment to say “Thank you!”. Thank you to the ‘International Concern’ that took their time, money and effort to make this article and all that will follow for some time to come. If not for their help I would be stuck without the means to write and publish without creating severe pain and suffering. For all of you, My Dear Shoevians, that are regular readers (from all around the world) you know that since my battle with cancer I have repeatedly tried to return to a regular publishing schedule. Each and every time, I have failed. I have failed due to the increased and intractable pain that sitting (in any way), for extended periods of time, causes. Now I have a medical ‘Over-the-Bed’ styled table that I can sit (comfortably) in my bed-chair, with pillows supporting my head, neck and shoulders, thereby relieving all pressure and weight from my neck.

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How Big is Pluto? Decades Long Debate Settled
How Big is Pluto? Decades Long Debate Settled

[4]

(How Big is Pluto? Decades Long Debate Settled)

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Whereas I know that you, My Dearest Shoevians, understand that between; research, uploading images, writing content, editing images, uploading images to three separate blog locations, uploading text and integrating text and images can take anywhere for six-eight hours to several DAYS. All of the ‘Gargantuan’ editions of ‘The Mars Report’ and ‘Lost in Space’ (deemed ‘Gargantuan’ once they reach 14+ pages in length and having 14+ images embedded) have taken two to three days from the very first image downloaded to my computer to the final editing and embedding of images into the finished article. Far from complaining I really rather enjoy these ‘Gargantuan’ editions. I just do not enjoy the days-weeks for pain that follows these endeavors. Now, that will (should be) a thing of the past.

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Right now I have already; researched, captured, uploaded, captioned and saved reference links for the eleven images that will make up this article. I see, from Task Manager, that my system has been ‘up’ for three hours and fifty-nine minuets. Yet, my neck and back… arms and hands are not hurting beyond my regular background level of pain. This IS a ‘Good Thing’! THANK YOU!

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The lead image of this edition is an artist’s impression of the New Horizons orbiter/spacecraft as it approaches Pluto. This was one of the very first images I saw when I started my research for the initial edition of ‘Lost in Space’ about the New Horizons’ mission. That’s right My Dear Shoevians; this is not my first article about the New Horizons mission, the spacecraft or its journey to the Kuiper Belt and Pluto. My original article, titled ‘Lost in Space – NASA Arrives at Kuiper Belt’[5] premiered April 17th, 2015. Long before this month’s media orgy over its arrival, close orbit, of the dwarf planet Pluto. I knew then that the arrival of New Horizons to the Kuiper Belt was a major accomplishment for America and mankind. I am just so very happy that I lived to see the day that man reached the very limits of our solar system. There is still the Oort Cloud, which I wrote about in my ‘Tour of Our Solar System #4’[6] series of ‘Lost in Space’ back in July 1st, 2014 (nearly exactly one year ago). Funny that I knew to write about this material as far back as one year ago, and as recently as in April of this year. Anywho. J

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Observations of Pluto Through the Years
Observations of Pluto Through the Years

[7]

(Observations of Pluto Through the Years)

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The image, above, is a GIF. This GIF is actually a series of images of the dwarf planet Pluto as seen over the years. An animation combines many images taken of Pluto over the decades. The very first frame is a digital zoom of the initial discovery of Pluto in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh, image courtesy of Lowell Observatory Archives. The final frame zooms in to a close-up frame of Pluto released on July 15, 2015. I thought this a fitting image to begin our journey into the newest images of Pluto thanks to the New Horizons orbiter spacecraft. Now, My Dear Shoevians, if you would like some information about; the launch of the mission, the mission patch, the spacecraft itself or anything-about New Horizons’ nine year/four billion mile journey you can read it in my original article here: Lost in Space – New Horizons – Redux.

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Pluto Image Sent to Earth on July 14. 2015
Pluto Image Sent to Earth on July 14. 2015

[8]

(Pluto Image Sent to Earth on July 14. 2015)

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The black and white image, above, was taken by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard the New Horizons spacecraft. It was taken on July 13, 2015 when the spacecraft was 476,000 miles (768,000 kilometers) from the surface of Pluto. This was, at the time it was taken, the very first High-Definition image ever taken of the surface of Pluto. The clarity and overall sharpness of this image is just breathtaking, to someone that has looked at blurry images and artist’s concept images for his entire life. For me, this image holds the same awe and mystery I found when I looked at the very first images astronauts Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin and Neil Armstrong took of the surface of the moon, forty-six years ago. Next is a false color version of this same image.

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Pluto is Dominated by the Feature Informally Named the “Heart”
Pluto is Dominated by the Feature Informally Named the “Heart”

[9]

(Pluto is Dominated by the Feature Informally Named the “Heart”)

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Above is the single sharpest image, of the dwarf planet Pluto, mankind has ever seen. Everyone associated with the ‘New Horizons’ mission understood, from the onset, that the orbiter would transmit the clearest/sharpest images of Pluto and Charon ever seen by man. I, for one, was just not really ready for what New Horizons delivered! Since I was a boy all I had ever seen, of Pluto, was blurry images that left more to the imagination than my eyes and artist’s concepts. Neither of which contained the all new feature (informally) named ‘The Heart’. If you, My Dear Shoevians, look to the lower right quadrant of the image above you can see the outline of ‘The Heart’. Almost like Pluto texting us a heart. As New Horizons sped towards Pluto it captured the following incredible portrait image, one of Pluto and Charon sharing a frame, together.

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A Portrait from the Final Approach to Pluto and Charon
A Portrait from the Final Approach to Pluto and Charon

[10]

(A Portrait from the Final Approach to Pluto and Charon)

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For decades scientists have theorized that the surface of Pluto (a terran planet out past our Jovian gas giants) would likely have a surface covered with ice. To the joy of scientists the world over the orbiter New Horizons ‘Ralph’ instrument revealed an abundance of methane ice. The ‘Ralph’ instrument is actually several imaging devices in one package.

“Ralph includes the Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), which generates visible and near infrared multi-spectral images and a panchromatic “framing” array for navigation, and the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA), provided by NASA/Goddard, which generates short wave infrared hyperspectral images”[11]

However, Ralph (named after the 50’s television character in ‘The Honeymooners’) showed something more about the methane on the surface of Pluto. That this methane ice shows striking differences, from place to place, across the frozen surface of Pluto.

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““We just learned that in the north polar cap, methane ice is diluted in a thick, transparent slab of nitrogen ice resulting in strong absorption of infrared light,” said New Horizons co-investigator Will Grundy, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona. In one of the visually dark equatorial patches, the methane ice has shallower infrared absorptions indicative of a very different texture. “The spectrum appears as if the ice is less diluted in nitrogen,” Grundy speculated “or that it has a different texture in that area.”[12]

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Below is an early composite infrared image of the surface of Pluto by the ‘Ralph’ imaging package.

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Pluto: The Ice Plot Thickens
Pluto: The Ice Plot Thickens

[13]

(Pluto: The Ice Plot Thickens)

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For our next, and last, images (today) of Pluto I have saved the best for last. This image is a close-up of the surface of Pluto near the equator. These high-definition images held a surprise for scientists and geologists alike. The ‘giant surprise’ was a range of youthful mountains rising as high as 11,000 feet (3,500 meters) above the surface of the icy body.

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“The mountains likely formed no more than 100 million years ago — mere youngsters relative to the 4.56-billion-year age of the solar system — and may still be in the process of building…” says Geology, Geophysics and Imaging (GGI) team leader Jeff Moore of NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.. That suggests the close-up region, which covers less than one percent of Pluto’s surface, may still be geologically active today.”

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The Icy Mountains of Pluto
The Icy Mountains of Pluto

[14]

(The Icy Mountains of Pluto)

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Now, My Dear Shoevians, we move on to one of Pluto’s moons… Charon. Pluto has five moons that orbit the little dwarf planet. (Yes, I am still a little miffed that they took away Pluto’s designation as one of our solar system’s nine planets) New horizons snapped some really impressive images of Charon and of Pluto and Charon together. Below are three of the most recent of these images.

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The image, below, is a false-color image made from composites taken by the Ralph imaging package. They were taken to highlight their compositional diversity. They are shown here in exaggerated colors that make it easy to note the differences in surface material and features on each planetary body.

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““These images show that Pluto and Charon are truly complex worlds. There’s a whole lot going on here,” said New Horizons co-investigator Will Grundy, Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, Arizona. “Our surface composition team is working as fast as we can to identify the substances in different regions on Pluto and unravel the processes that put them where they are.”[15]

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Pluto and Charon Shine in False Color
Pluto and Charon Shine in False Color

[16]

(Pluto and Charon Shine in False Color)

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Well, My Dear Shoevians, as I write this edition of ‘Lost in Space’ I can clearly see that this edition will qualify as a ‘Gargantuan’ edition. That means that this edition of ‘Lost in Space’ has twelve or more pages of content, twelve or more images and twelve or more footnotes. So, when you see me advertise this article in; Facebook, Twitter, Tumbler, and Pintrest you will see me use the designation ‘Gargantuan’. I don’t use it often, but when I do you can be sure that you are in for a real treat of an article.

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I started this article back on the 17th of this month. That is the day that I did the research on the images, uploaded the images to my computer, captured the links for the footnotes and copied text from the original sites for quotes, here. This is a long process, but one that yields a high quality article, one that I enjoy sharing and can take pride… in. Our next-to-the-last image, of this edition, is a full screen close-up of Pluto’s moon, Charon. Taken late by New Horizons’ Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on July 13, 2015 from a distance of 289,000 miles (466,000 kilometers) this image was a defining moment for the project.

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Charon’s Surprising, Youthful and Varied Terrain
Charon’s Surprising, Youthful and Varied Terrain

[17]

(Charon’s Surprising, Youthful and Varied Terrain)

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Just below the equator, in this image, you can see a swath of cliffs and troughs. They stretch about 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) from left to right, suggesting widespread fracturing of Charon’s crust, likely a result of internal processes. In the upper right quadrant of this image (just below the upper polar region) the ‘dark spot’ is actually a canyon four to six miles deep!

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My Dear Shoevians we have come to the final image of this ‘Gargantuan’ edition of ‘Lost in Space’. Building on the image above, our following image shows a close-up of another region of the surface of Charon. We see the region of Charon’s surface just to the east of the image above. This image is named ‘Mountain in a Moat’.

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New Horizons Close-Up of Charon’s ‘Mountain in a Moat’
New Horizons Close-Up of Charon’s ‘Mountain in a Moat’

[18]

(New Horizons Close-Up of Charon’s ‘Mountain in a Moat’)

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“The image shows an area approximately 240 miles (390 kilometers) from top to bottom, including few visible craters. “The most intriguing feature is a large mountain sitting in a moat,” said Jeff Moore with NASA’s Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, who leads New Horizons’ Geology, Geophysics and Imaging team. “This is a feature that has geologists stunned and stumped.”[19]

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Well, My Dear Shoevians, I hope that you have enjoyed this ‘Gargantuan’ edition of ‘Lost in Space’. While it has taken me nearly a week to finish; writing, embedding images, editing and publishing this article? It was a labor of love. For, you see, My Dear Shoevians this is the very first article I have written and produced with my regular method since I landed my new URL! Yes, I have published nearly a dozen articles at all three blog locations, since Friday, for them I used a different method to; write, edit and publish. This way is longer, more difficult and more time consuming… but it is my method.

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As always, My Dear Shoevians, if you have enjoyed this article please be sure to ‘Like’ and ‘Share’ this with all your friends and family and all the social media you use and enjoy. This way more and more people can find and, too, enjoy this article and my works. I will be back, as soon as tomorrow, with more and more articles.

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My Dear Shoevians, if the past four days are any indication? You will see more articles and more often than ever before in my publishing career. I hope you enjoy what I have to share.

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Adieu!

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Thank you!

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Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe
Danny Hanning Writer, Editor, Research Staff and Publisher at The Other Shoe

© 2010 – 2015 Hanning Web Wurx and The Other Shoe



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